SPS care difficulty...  (mostly correct)

Here is a copy of a list from Chris at ReeferMdness, circa 2006:

Easiest= most Staghorn's: A. nobilis, A. formosa (super fast grower), A. insignis, A. yongei, A. abrolhosensis, A. tortuosa, A. horrida, A. robusta, A. exquisita, A. pectinatus, A. pulchra, A. austera. Also non-stags; A. tenius, A. sarmentosa, A. kimbeensis, A. valida, A. nana, A. vermiculata, I am sure there are a few more.

More Difficult= A. abrotanoides, A. secale, A. samoensis, A. humilis, A. chesterfieldensis, A. granulosa, A. macrostoma, A. schmitti, A. parilis, A. azurea, A. millepora, A. prostrata, A. lokani, A. latistella, A. plana, A. echinata, A. navini, A. proximalis, A. verweyi, A. cerealis, A. grandis, A. maryae, A. microphthalma, A. copiosa, there are more I just can't think of them at the moment.

Most Difficult or just need a really mature system with tons and tons of flow= A. gemmifera, A. hyacinthus, A. cytherea, A. bufuricata, A. monticulosa, A. suharsonoi, A. loripes, A. rosaria, A. donei, A. efflorescens, A. solitaryensis, A. branchii, A. retusa, A. aculeus, A. caroliniana, A. clathrata, A. globiceps....

MasterFlex tubing info

1 RPM----mL/min----mL/hour
L/S 13-----0.06-------3.6
L/S 14-----0.21-------12.6
L/S 16-----0.8--------48
L/S 15-----1.7--------102
L/S 25-----1.7--------102
L/S 17-----2.8--------168
L/S 15(sub)2.8--------168
L/S 18-----3.8--------228

2 RPM----mL/min----mL/hour
L/S 13-----0.12-------7.2
L/S 14-----0.42-------25.2
L/S 16-----1.6--------96
L/S 15-----3.2--------204
L/S 25-----3.2--------204
L/S 17-----5.6--------336
L/S 15(sub)5.6--------336
L/S 18-----7.6--------456

6 RPM----mL/min----Gallon/hour
L/S 13-----0.36-------.0057
L/S 14-----1.3--------.0206
L/S 16-----4.8--------.0760
L/S 15-----10---------.1585
L/S 25-----10---------.1585
L/S 17-----17---------.2694
L/S 15(sub)17---------.2694
L/S 18-----23---------.3645

12 RPM----mL/min----Gallon/hour
L/S 13-----0.72-------.0114
L/S 14-----2.6--------.0412
L/S 16-----9.6--------.1520
L/S 15-----20---------.3170
L/S 25-----20---------.3170
L/S 17-----31---------.5388
L/S 15(sub)31---------.5388
L/S 18-----46---------.7290

Cole-Parmer----US-Plastics P/N----US-Plastics P/N----Inside Diameter----Outside Diameter
Tygon Pharmed NSF Norprene
L/S 13-------------57316---------------N/A-----------------1/32"---------------5/32"
L/S 14-------------57317--------------54288----------------1/16"---------------3/16"
L/S 16-------------57318--------------54289----------------1/8"----------------1/4"
L/S 25-------------57319--------------54290----------------3/16"---------------5/16
L/S 17-------------57320--------------54291----------------1/4"----------------3/8"
L/S 15--------------N/A----------------N/A-----------------3/16"---------------1/2"
L/S 15(substitute)-57320--------------54291----------------1/4"----------------3/8"
L/S 24--------------N/A----------------N/A-----------------1/4"----------------9/16"
L/S 18-------------57322--------------54293----------------5/16"---------------7/16"
L/S 35--------------N/A----------------N/A-----------------5/16"---------------5/8"

MasterFlex Heads - standard L/S

7013 - L/s 13 precision tubing - thin wall
7014 - L/s 14 precision tubing - thin wall
7016 - L/s 16 precision tubing - thin wall
7017 - L/s 17 precision tubing - thin wall
7018 - L/s 18 precision tubing - thin wall
7025 - L/s 25 precision tubing - thin wall

7015 - L/s 15 high precision tubing - thick wall(accepts L/S 17 tubing)
7024 - L/s 24 high precision tubing - thick wall
7035 - L/s 35 high precision tubing - thick wall

7018-20 - polycarb - cold steel
7018-21 - polycarb - stainless steel
7018-52 - polyphen - stainless steel
7518-00 - easy load - cold steel
7518-10 - easy load - stainless steel
7518-60 - easy load - polyphen - stainless steel
77200-50 - easy load II - cold steel
77200-60 - easy load II - stainless steel
77202-50 - easy load II - 2 channel - cold steel
77202-60 - easy load II - 2 channel - stainless steel
77201-50 - easy load II - adj occlusion - cold steel
77201-60 - easy load II - adj occlusion - stainless steel

-52 - high precision tubing
-62 - high precision tubing

List of Treatments and Contraindications
http://www.aquariacentral.com/forums/showthread.php?135493-List-of-Treatments-and-Contraindications (with additional information)

This thread will be used as a reference for various types of treatments that we can use if the need for them arises. If you have questions on how to treat diseases, please make a separate thread and we will take it from there.

*A word of warning: When using the meds, please do not mix them unless it is advisable. Mixing the meds can be dangerous to the fish. After using one med, use activated carbon in the filter to remove the med and you can use another. This will enable you to use another med without the risk of mixing them. See Contraindications and read carefully for compatibility issues with other meds.

Furthermore, please do not use the medicines until you are sure of what you are doing. Consult a person with full knowledge in the hobby first before you proceed with the treatments.

A few more notes:
1. Some meds are water soluble and may bind to organic matter so a full redose may be required every 24 hours. Some meds however linger for a long time so be very careful in weighing your options which treatment to use and plan ahead your dosage schedule.

2. Some meds are light sensitive. It is for this reason why they are placed in opaque bottles. As a general rule, keep the meds inside cool dark places.

3. KEEP OUT OF REACH FROM YOUR CHILDREN AND PETS. Some meds are extremely toxic and already banned by FDA from use towards pets and animals intended for human consumption. Be sure you padlock the meds elsewhere out of reach from your children. If possible, include the TOXIC symbols in bottles and cabinets where you place the meds in.

4. Be sure the meds do not leak from their bottles and do not combine bottles of potent meds in one place.

5. A lot of meds are also carcinogenic so handle them with care. If possible, store some gloves and first aid kits for emergency cases. Do not drain recognized carcinogens in your garden where you grow your foods. Pour the contaminated water and other liquids straight to the drain.

6. Some meds are flammable. Keep in cool dark places.


BB-beneficial bacteria

Diseases: Brooklynella hostilis, Costia (Ichtyhobodo necatrix), Columnaris, Carp Pox, Fin Rot and other diseases related to bacterial infections.
Effective against the parasite Amyloodinium.
Contraindications: Acriflavine is found mainly as ingredient in several medications and is very effective in most bacterial infection cases. It is compatible with malachite green and copper sulfate however it may sterilize your prized breeders so avoid using this for breeding fish.

You should wear gloves and protect all surfaces with plastic. It will stain the glass inside the aquarium meaning it is difficult to remove. All surfaces affected will need to do some serious cleaning which isn't easy. Use thick papertoweling or a rag when cleaning the whole inside as the acriflavine sticks.

A quarantine tank with bare bottom and sponge type filter is the best way to prepare for using it. Something that can be broken down and set back up easily after cleaning would be your best bet.

Diseases: ich

Aquarium Care Fin Rot by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Acriflavine, Aminoacridine, Hydrocloride & Formaldehyde
Diseases: Flukes and external bacterial infections

Aquarium Care Fungus by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Malachite Green
Diseases: Fungal & Ectoparasite infections

Aquarium Doctor: BSB by Tap
Active ingredients: Acriflavine, Hydrochloride & Malachite Green
Diseases: External bacterial & fungal infections in Freshwater & Marine fish.

Aquarium Doctor: FC11 by Tap
Active ingredients: Acriflavine, EDTA, Silver, Copper, Polyvinylpyrrolidone & Organic Sulphur
Diseases: External Bacterial infections in Marine fish.

Aquarium Doctor: MM2 by Tap
Active ingredients: Copper sulphate, Malachite Green, Polyvinylpyrrolidone & Organic Sulphur
Diseases: External Bacterial, Oodinum & fungal infections in Marine fish. Contraindications:
Harmful to inverts

Aquarium Doctor: WSP by Tap
Active ingredients: Formaldehyde, Malachite Green, Methylene Blue, Para Rosaniline & Sodium chloride
Diseases: Protozoal infections and Flukes in Freshwater & Marine fish.
Harmful to morymids. Use half dose if marine invertebrates are present.

Aquarium Salt-Freshwater use only
Diseases: ich, flukes, nitrite poisoning
Contraindications: Further information can be found below.

Dosage: A 0.1% solution which is one teaspoon per gallon will work just fine for bottom dwellers such as loaches and catfishes. Contrary to popular beliefs, salt can work perfectly well as a treatment if added slowly and carefully to avoid osmotic shock.

0.3% solution (3 teaspoons per gallon) will work just fine as preventive and corrective treatment for quarantine procedures and treatment against protozoans, flukes and most pathogens.

Bactocide by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Acriflavine, Aminoacridine, Hydrochloride & Formaldehyde
Diseases: External Bacterial, Oodinum & Flukes

Active ingredients: Enrofloxacin
Diseases: bacterial infections
Best used as injectable antibiotic for renal cysts and internal bacterial infections. For baths, dosage is 0.8 mg per liter.

Available in veterinary clinics. Some veterinary clinics may require you prescriptions before you can obtain it.

Active Ingredients: 0.2% melaluca oil
Diseases: Wounds
See Melafix. Bettafix has a much lesser concentration as melaluca oil can potentially choke the labyrinth fish.

Active ingredients: 250 mg capsule, Nitrofurazone, Methylene Blue, PVP, Vitamins, NaCl, Sulfas: Methazine, Diazine and Merazine
Diseases: Specific for bettas, guppies, and all fancy fin fish. Treats listlessness, poor appetite, splits and holes in fins and tail, poor colour, poor water quality, vitamin deficiency, bacterial infections, fungal infections

Active ingredients: nitrofurazone, sodium chloride
Diseases: fungus, fin/tail/mouth rot, hemorrhage septicemia, swim bladder disorder, dropsy and cloudy eyes.

Bio Bandage
Active Ingredients:
neomycin sulfate, methylene blue, cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), binder, adhesion agents in isotonic, aqueous solution
Diseases: ulcers
Used as a topical treatment for ulcerated wounds. Available at Pond Solutions.

BSB (Broad Spectrum Bactericide) by The Aquarium Doctor
Contraindications: Very effective cure for fin rot, gill disease, fungus, ulcers, wounds and bacterial disorders in all fishes.

Chloramine T
Diseases: bacterial infections, costia, trichodina, chilodonella, ich, gyrodactylus, dactygyridae
Contraindications: For more information, please proceed to this

These antibiotics prevent protein synthesis and effect the cells ability to reproduce. Best used as injectable antibiotics.

Active ingredients: trichlorfon, malachite green, hydroxychloroquine
Diseases: Ectoparasites

Clove Oil
Clove oil is a very strong herbal agent so use it in a well ventilated area. This is best used as a sedative or for euthanasia. Also known as eugenol.

Sedation is NOT advisable for beginners to attempt. Instructions must be followed carefully otherwise you risk killing your fish in the process.

Place at least 5-6 drops of clove oil in a ziplock bag with at least a quart of water already in there. Shake well and pour into a gallon bucket of water. Place the fish there and wait for a few minutes before the fish dives into unconsciousness. Be sure your much needed tools are already organized and within your reach. Do your work as quickly as you can (with caution). Once work is done, start spraying water near the gills of the fish to remove some clove oil sticking on it. Place the fish into another bucket of fresh clean water until the fish revives itself. Make sure the bucket is ell aerated using an airpump to do the job.

Available as toothache drop in pharmacies.

Copper Sulfate
Diseases: most protozoans, nemotodes, copepods, flukes
It must be noted it is very dangerous to use copper sulfate when treating your tank. A copper test kit is required at this rate when treating regardless of it being chelated or unchelated. It must match the type of copper being used, chelated or unchelated, if the test is incompatible with the type of copper being used, you won't get an accurate reading for that. It is best to treat in a hospital tank only as even small traces cannot be removed from the main tank easily. Carbon cannot remove most of the copper so think twice before you attempt this.

Copper can harm and destroy all invertebrates and plants so think before you add it to your main community tank. This eventually leads to dire effects on the fish as well as other aquatic life.

Never use copper in tanks containing salt, invertebrates, with immunity-challenged fish and with drastic pH changes especially acidic water conditions.

Diseases: external parasites
An extremely toxic pesticide used by some pond owners to destroy fish lice and anchorworms. Not a recommended treatment. Dimilin (diflubenzuron) is a much more advisable alternative.

Active ingredients: chelated copper
Diseases: most protozoans, nemotodes, copepods, flukes
See Copper Sulfate.

Diseases: Whitespot, Oodinium, Benedenia, Trichodina and fungal infections

Diseases: anchorworms (Lernaea elegans), fish lice, ergasilus
thread for more details. Available under another name, diflubenzuron.

Active ingredients: 250mg capsules of Levamisole, NaCl, Piperazine, Magnesium sulfate and Neomycin Sulfate Activity
Diseases: Intestinal flagellates
This is another alternative to Levamisole hydrochloride which is an anti-worm agent.

Diseasolve Aquarium Antiseptic by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Acriflavine & Meythelene Blue
Diseases: External bacterial & Protozoal infections

Diseasolve by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Acriflavine & Meythelene Blue
Diseases: External Bacterial & Ectoparasite infections in Koi & other carp.

E.M. Tablets
Active ingredients: erythromycin
Diseases: bacterial infections
See Erythromycin. A product of API (Aquarium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.).

Epsom Salts
Active ingredients: pure Magnesium sulfate
Diseases: dropsy/bloat, intestinal flagellates
Dosage: 1/8 teaspoon to 1/2 teaspoon per 10 gallons.

Diseases: bacterial infections, intestinal flagellates
It was noted to be quite effective when the pH is neutral or slightly alkaline.
Effective against most gram-positive and some gram negative bacteria and fungus.

Compatible with Metromeds but incompatible with MediGold.

Dosage: 250- 500 mg per 20 gallons every 24 hours with a 25% water change before each treatment. Treat for 10 days.

Also registers as methyl-5- benzol-benaimidizole-2-carbamate.

Diseases: roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, tapeworms
It is considered a very effective treatment against nematodes (camallanus worms and capillaria).

Diseases: intestinal parasites
Available in UK only.

Diseases: ich, external protozoans
Formalin should be administered in a well ventilated area. It is a carcinogenic agent so please exercise caution when using such product. Toxicity may elevate in connection to high temperature above 70 degrees.

Formalin can deplete oxygen so keep your water well-aerated.

This is not compatible with salt so refrain from using any commercial product containing formalin with salt.

Dosage: 2 teaspoons per 10g (20ppm). Dose half only for severely weakened fish. Water changes need to be performed first before redosing med. May be redosed on a daily basis for at least a week or two and continue treatment 3-4 more days right after ich disappears.

Formalite II
Active ingredients: Formaldehyde 15%, Copper and Nickel Sulfate
Diseases: ich, velvet disease, collapsed fins, white body blotches, marine ich (Cryptocarion irritans)
Contraindications: Due to copper sulfate content, this should be used only in quarantine tanks. Copper traces can destroy invertebrates. Not to be used with salt.

Fungistop by Tetra
Active ingredients: Silver collid & Mentanii yellow.
Diseases: bacterial and fungal infections

Active ingredients: 100 mg capsules, Nitrofurazone Activity
Diseases: red areas and body streaks, peeling or white body slime, open ulcers, wasting away, bacterial infections, ammonia exposure, furunculosis, columnaris

Furan 2
Active Ingredients: nitrofurazone, furazolidone, methylene blue trihydrate
Diseases: bacterial infections
Furazolidone and nitrofurazone are carcinogenic agents. A product of API.

Active ingredients: Nifurpirinol
Diseases: mouth fungus, tail rot, cotton-wool disease, black molly disease

General Tonic by Tetra
Active ingredients: Ethacridine-lactate, acriflavine, methylene blue & 9-aminocridine-hydrocloride.

Diseases: bacterial infections
This affects the bacterial cell membrane which is responsible for bringing nutrients into the cell and taking waste out of the cell. The antibiotics disrupt this process. It is toxic when overdosed.

Active ingredients: NaCl, sodium thiosulphate (chlorine treatment aka fixer), nitrofurazone, polyvinyl-pyrrolidone, triethylene glycol, acriflavine, potassium dichromate.

Active ingredients: 250 mg capsule, Metronidazole Activity
Diseases: white dots or body velvet, holes in the head or sinus area, weight loss, not eating and wasting away, unexplained deaths which can be minimized, marine Ich or protozoans, fresh and marine protozoans

Hydrogen Peroxide

Interpet Anti Fungus and Finrot
Diseases: Mycobacteriosis, bacterial and fungal infections
Anti Fungus and Finrot is a single dose treatment which is added directly to the aquarium to quickly and effectively control disease bacteria on and off the fish. The treatment remains active for a few days, preventing further outbreaks.

Interpet Anti Internal Bacteria (Fish Health Treatment Number 9)
Active ingredients: Bronopol (522mg), Formaldehyde (900mg) and Benzalkonium Chloride (250mg)
All check out as being legitimate fish treatments pretty much, in fact for bacteria and parasites but would have to be considered as very aggressive and crude. It's a two part treatment and you must dose the second part after 4 days. Like all aggressive treatments using it with another treatment would be nuts. You don't do water changes during treatment (one week) so advise large change prior to dosing so as to not have high nitrates - this I think is pretty important in e.g. a fully stocked cichlid tank. After dosing and waiting out as per directions run carbon or do very large water changes over a couple of days.

It has no antibiotic agent.

Does it work ? I don't know. I read up on the active ingredients and they scared me.lol I went with good old fashioned large daily changes for a week and my problem resolved. I would use only in cases where this has been tried and is not working, fish are dieing, and you don't have access to e.g. Maracyn/Maracyn 2.

On another issue, it does say on the box "harmful to aquatic organisms. may cause long term adverse effects in the aquatic environment"....

It does claim to be plant and bacterial filtration safe nonetheless. I can't see that it would be harmful to inverts as no copper.

Finally, I believe it is not really a specifically anti-bacterial treatment - the formaldehyde and Bronopol is also indicated for parasites.

Best way to use it IMO is buy it, read the box, show the fish the box, explain that if they don't get better then they're getting this stuff. It will terrify them back to health.

Interpet Anti Slime and Velvet
Active ingredients: Velvet, Flukes, Chilodonella, Ichthyobodo (Costia), Trichodina and Brooklynella
Fish often carry a small risk of skin and gill parasites. When fish are stressed, this population will rapidly increase, endangering the fishes' lives.

Anti Slime and Velvet will eradicate velvet (Oodinium and Amlyoodinium), flukes (Dactylogyrus and Gyrodactylus) and protozoan parasites including Chilodonella, Ichthyobodo (Costia), Trichodina and Brooklynella.

Anti Slime and Velvet has been formulated for use in both marine and freshwater aquariums. A single dose remains active in the aquarium long enough to cure the disease episode. Most parasite outbreaks are cured more quickly at higher temperatures - we recommend a temperature of 27C/80F for the duration of the treatment.

Interpet Liquisil General Tonic
Active ingredients: Bronopol, Copper, Formaldehyde, Silver Proteinate
This is a medicine not advisable for use. Why? After a few research done by a fellow member, Bronopol which is one of its active ingredients has the potential to kill all livestocks and plants if not used properly. It is highly toxic even to the users. Copper is another matter and should not be used where invertebrates are concerned.

The silver proteinate is for staining purposes and can block out light which can kill most fungal developments.

Interpet Koi Anti Fungus and Bacterial
Active ingredients: Acrflavine, Malachite Green & Methylene Blue
Diseases: External bacterial & Fungal infections in Pond fish.
Harmful to Orfe, Rudd and Stergeons/Sterlets

Interpet Koi Anti Parasite FS
Active ingredients: Formaldehyde, Malachite Green & Methylene Blue
Diseases: Flukes & Protozoal infections in Pond Fish.

Jungle Antibacterial Medicated Food
Active Ingredients: Sodium Sulfathiazole 2.3%, Nitrofurazone 0.13%

Ingredients: Ingredients: Soybean Meal, Sorghum Distillers Dried Grain with Solubles, Ground Grain Sorghum, Fish Meal, Fish Oil, Dicalcium Phosphate, dl-Methionine, Ascorbic Acid, Ethoxyquin (a preservative), Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin E Supplement, Thiamine Mononitrate, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, d-Calcium Pantothenate, Niacin Supplement, Folic Acid, Riboflavin Supplement, Menadione Sodium Bisulfate Complex, Biotin, Choline Chloride, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Manganese Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate, Cobalt Carbonate, Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Ferrous Sulfate, Sodium Selenite, Vitamin A Supplement, Mineral Oil, and Vitamin B-12 Supplement.

Diseases: Internal bacterial infections (such as bacterial enteritis, septicemia, kidney disease, wasting), external infections, open sores, ulcers, columnaris and fin rot. Also helps reduce the effects of microsporidian infections such as Pleistophora, the causative agent in neon tetra disease.

Feeding Directions:
Gently spread food over water surface so that it floats. Feed exclusively for 5 to 10 days as required. Do not use other foods during this period. Feed as much as the fish will eat, 1 or 2 times daily. May be used with external water treatments, antibiotic/fungal or parasite treatments. For scavengers and small fish, crush pellets to desired size.

Guaranteed Analysis
Crude Protein.....min. 36%
Crude Fat..... ......min. 7%
Crude Fiber.........max. 6%
Moisture...........max. 10%
Calcium...............min. 1%
Calcium............max. 1.8%
Phosphorus..........min. 1%
Sodium............min. 0.15%
Sodium.............max. 0.3%

Jungle Anti-Parasite Medicated Fish Food
Active Ingredients: Metronidazole 1.0%, Praziquantel 0.5%, Levamisole 0.4
Guaranteed Analysis
Crude Protein..........min. 36%
Crude Fat.................min.7%
Crude Fibermax................6%
Moisture................max. 10%
Calcium....................min. 1%
Calcium.................max. 1.8%
Phosphorus...............min. 1%
Sodium.................min. 0.15%
Sodium..................max. 0.3%

Ingredients: Soybean Meal, Sorghum Distillers Dried Grain with Solubles, Ground Grain Sorghum, Fish Meal, Fish Oil, Dicalcium Phosphate, dl-Methionine, Ascorbic Acid, Ethoxyquin (a preservative), Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin E Supplement, Thiamine Mononitrate, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, d-Calcium Pantothenate, Niacin Supplement, Folic Acid, Riboflavin Supplement, Menadione Sodium Bisulfate Complex, Biotin, Choline Chloride, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Manganese Sulfate, Copper Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate, Cobalt Carbonate, Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Ferrous Sulfate, Sodium Selenite, Vitamin A Supplement, Mineral Oil, and Vitamin B-12 Supplement.

For Internal Parasites
Aids in control of internal flagellates, trematodes, and cestodes, which includes hexamita (hole-in-the-head), spironucleus, intestinal worms, tapeworms, and nematodes, e.g. camallanus.

Feeding Directions:
Gently spread food over water surface so that it floats. Feed exclusively for 3 consecutive days a week for 4 weeks. Do not use other foods during these 3-day periods. Feed as much as the fish will eat 1 or 2 times daily. May be used with external water treatments, antibiotic/fungal or anti-parasitic treatments. For scavengers and small fish, crush pellets to desired size.

Effective against nematodes (camallanus and capillaria), cestodes (flatworms), flagellates (hexamita, sprironucleus) and monogenean trematodesx (flukes) as covered by three ingredients, all of which are anthelmintics.

Available at
Goldfish Utopia, courtesy of Thegab.org.

Jungle Fungus Clear
Active ingredients: nitrofurazone, furazolidone, potassium dichromate
Diseases: bacterial and fungal infections, costia
See Jungle Fungus Eliminator. The only difference is this one has salt added to keep bacterial infections at bay.

Jungle Fungus Eliminator (crystals)
Active ingredients: NaCl, Nitrofurazone, furazolidone, potassium dichromate.
Diseases: Columnaris, furunculosis, Costia, dropsy, fin and mouth rot, white film on eyes (usually cataracts and cloudy eyes), hemorrhage septicemia
It is an effective treatment for fungal infections on bettas, however it can damage live plants.

Jungle Ick Guard
Active ingredients: .20% triethylene glycol, victoria green, nitromersol, acriflavine
Diseases: treats Ich (white spot)

Active ingredients: 150 mg capsules, Kanamycin Sulfate, and NaCl
Diseases: full spectrum skin absorbing antibiotic, treats hemorrhage, red body patches, rotting fins and tail rot, protruding or loss of scales, furunculosis, bacterial infections, fungal infections, internal infections.
This affects the bacterial cell membrane which is responsible for bringing nutrients into the cell and taking waste out of the cell. The antibiotics disrupt this process. It is toxic when overdosed.

These antibiotics prevent protein synthesis and effect the cells ability to reproduce.

Not to be used in fish with dropsy assuming the cause is associated to kidney malfunction. More effective with high pH and hardness levels, the opposite of tetracycline.

Koi Care Acriflavine by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Acriflavine
Diseases: External bacterial, protozoal & fungal infections in Pond fish.
Can be used with tropicals with care as it is easy to overdose.

Koi Care Calm by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Clove oil
Very easy to overdose as clove oil is used for euthanasia.

Koi Care FMG by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Formaldehyde & Malachite Green
Diseases: Fungal & Protozoal infections in Pond fish.
Can be used with tropicals with care as it is easy to overdose. Harmful to Orfe, Rudd, Tench and Stergeons/Sterlets.

Koi Care Gillwash by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Benzalkionium chloride
Diseases: Bacterial Gill infections in Pond Fish.
Harmful to nitrifying bacteria; use half dose in soft water.

Koi Care Malachite Green by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Malachite Green
Diseases: Fungal & external Parasite infections in Pond Fish.

Koi Care Ulcer-Swab by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Benzalkonium chloride & Providone
Used as a cleaner of wounds on Pond Fish. Apply directly to fish without leaking it near gills, mouth and eyes, and do not dose in pond.

Koi Care Wound Seal by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Zinc cream
Used to seal wounds and promote healing in Pond Fish. Note Apply directly to fish, do not dose pond

Kordon Ich Attack
Diseases: ich, other protozoans, dinoflagellates, and fungus
More information can be found

Levamisole hydrochloride
Diseases: roundworms, lungworms, nematodes, nodular worms, hookworms, stomach worms

Not effective against flukes, flatworms and tapeworms as experimented by
This is often used in cattles however it has proven itself effective in fish as well. It is used as a defense mechanism against parasites found among wild-caught fish particularly loaches.

Levamisole hydrochloride has been found labelled in other names and is also found as an ingredient in some medications. It is light-sensitive and should be stored in a cool and dark place. It is worth noting that it is also found as Levasole.

For more information and treatment recommendations, you can proceed to this
thread. Liv2padl has some great recommendations on this.

Life Bearer
Active ingredients: 0.0-dimehyl, 1-hydroxybenzol, 2-trichloromethyl phosphate
Diseases: flukes and fish lice

Lifeguard All-In-One (New) from Tetra
Diseases: Ich, Fungus, Bacterial Infections

Diseases: fish lice, anchorworm, ergasilus
Proven to be quite effective against parasites and is an active ingredients in flea dog sprays.

Malachite Green
Diseases: ich, fungus, saprolegnia
A well known carcinogenic agent that is also listed as Victoria green, Aniline green, diamond green or any "green". More toxic at high temperature and pH and can kill your beneficial bacteria and even plants. Not to be used in saline solution more than 0.2% (2 teaspoons per gallon).

Active ingredients: Tris (hydroxy-methyl) aminomethane, dibromohydroxymercurifluorescein, aniline green.
Diseases: Ich, Velvet, protozoan diseases, chilodonella (blueish-white film on fish) Trichodina (extra mucus and cloudiness of skin) and other external freshwater parasites

Active ingredients: Erythromycin
Diseases: gram positive bacterial infections, fin and tail rot, popeye, body fungus
These antibiotics prevent protein synthesis and effect the cells ability to reproduce.

Further information can be found under the name Erythromycin.

Maracyn 2
Active ingredients: Minocycline
Diseases: gram negative bacterial infections, dropsy, hemorrhage septicemia, popeye, fin and tail rot.
Minocycline is found to be a synthetic tetracycline. These antibiotics prevent protein synthesis and effect the cells ability to reproduce.

Compatible with Maracyn (erythromycin).

Maracyn Plus
Active Ingredients: sulfadimidine and trimethoprim
Diseases: bacterial infections
Much more preferred to a combination of Maracyn (erythromycin) and Maracyn 2 (minocycline).

Compatible with MediGold or Metromeds. Dose per instructions written on the bottle.

Diseases: true fungal infections on fish and eggs and bacterial disease

Active ingredients: 1% melaluca oil
Diseases: wounds and tattered fins, bruises
There were some situations where Melafix itself proved fatal on some fish species such as bettas as it was alleged that the oil can clog gills and therefore obstruct breathing. Not to be used with labyrinth fish or oxygen-challenged specimens.

Compatible with Pimafix and anything else.

Diseases: fungus, carp pox
Mercurochrome is used as a topical application to ulcerated wounds or surgical wounds. Please do not put it in contact with the fish's mouth, eyes and gills although at a lesser extent, it will do less harm/damage compared in contact to human eyes.

Methylene Blue
Diseases: skin and gill flukes, velvet, fungus, ich, chilodonella, costia,
A well known carcinogenic agent so exercise caution when using this. Compatible with salt and any antibiotics. Can be used as a topical treatment.
Methylene blue can destroy nitrifying bacteria and plants in the display aquarium.

Metro Med
Active ingredients: Metronidazole, Ormetoprim-sulfa and Oxytetracycline
Diseases: Dropsy, internal bacterial infections and internal parasitic infections.
Metro-Med is a krill based food that contains Metronidazole and an antibiotic used for treating Hexamita (hole in the head) in Goldfish. Because it contains anti-bacterial ingredients (Ormetoprim-sulfa and Oxytetracycline), metromed is not the best medication to use when trying to treat for internal parasites specifially.

Available in
Goldfish Connection and Goldfish Utopia.

Diseases: Internal Parasites, Hexamita or Hole-in-the-Head Disease
An antibacterial parasiticide which is effective in most cases against internal parasites which can be characterized by white stringy poo in the fish's anus and even dropsy.

Not to be used in saltwater tanks.

Available in pharmacies as Flagyl or generic metronidazole (sometimes in liquid or tablet form) and as alternative to Metro Med for dropsy cases.

Diseases: gram negative bacterial infections, dropsy, hemorrhage septicemia, popeye, fin and tail rot.
Minocycline is found to be a synthetic tetracycline. These antibiotics prevent protein synthesis and effect the cells ability to reproduce.
Side note: This medication is also administered to humans since there is a bacterial infection that we can catch from our fish tanks!

Diseases: fin rot, body rot, ulcers, sores and other bacterial infections, exophthalmus, cloudy eyes and mouth fungus.

Active ingredients: 200 mg, Neomycin Sulfate
Diseases: internal swelling, open sores, body and fin rot, colour and weight loss, wasting away
This affects the bacterial cell membrane which is responsible for bringing nutrients into the cell and taking waste out of the cell. The antibiotics disrupt this process. It is toxic when overdosed and fatal to already weakened fish.

These antibiotics prevent protein synthesis and effect the cells ability to reproduce. Also a very powerful antibiotic that often is not resisted by various strains of bacteria making it the last but great choice for severe bacterial infections.

Best used as a bath/dip or topical treatment.

Dosage courtesy of
1/4 of the package to a quart of distilled water placed in a ziplock freezer bag. Place the fish in the mixture for at least 5 minutes. Remove if fish is very distressed and cease continuation. Once the dip is done, put the fish in a separate container for a brief period (preferably 10-15 minutes) to rinse most of the antibiotic as Neomycin can destroy beneficial bacteria.

For topical treatment, use by spray method and hold fish carefully or while it is sedated (not recommended for beginners). You may seal the fish's eyes with your hands to calm it down while spraying the affected areas.

Requires three series of treatment daily or every other day. Antibiotic can be reused and filtered using filter paper or coffee filter if there is too much particles already suspended.

Available as Neocide 3 or Tricide Neo and by
PondRx. Keep in cool dark place.

Active ingredients: Neomycin sulfate
Diseases: See Neomycin.
See Neomycin.


Nitrofura G
Active ingredients: 200mg capsule, Furazolidone, Methyblue, Potassium Dichromate
Diseases: red patches, fin and tail rot, goldfish disease, bacterial infections, furunculosis

Diseases: cloudy eyes, eroding fins and tails, external bacterial infections, and minor abrasions and wounds
Contraindications: Nitrofurazone is the antibiotic of choice for most bacterial problems. Nitrofurazone does not inhibit nitrifying bacteria, so fish may be treated in the display aquarium if necessary. An additional benefit of nitrofurazone is that it may be safely triple-dosed in difficult cases. Nitrofurazone will color the water yellow during treatment, but this color will quickly disappear after filtering through activated carbon. Dissolve nitrofurazone in aquarium water at 50 mgs per gallon every other day for seven days (four treatments) with a 25% water change between dosages. The level of medication in the aquarium will build up over the course of the treatments despite the water changes. Nitrofurazone may also be added to food at 6 mgs. Per 4 ounces (.05 mgs/gram) of food twice a day for nine days. If you find that nitrofurazone is ineffective against a particular for a bacterial problem; try a preparation of tetracycline according to its manufacturer's recommendations.
~Source unknown but extracted from Philippine Discus club by Jim Quarles.~

Diseases: Hole in the head, seawater angelfish and clownfish disease, dropsy, marine ich

Diseases: oodinium, costia, tetrahymena, and saltwater ich (cryptocaryon)

Paracide by NT Labs
Active ingredients: Citric acid, Cupric sulphate & Formaldehyde
Diseases: Protozoal & Fungal Infections in Pond fish.
Harmful to inverts

Active ingredients: Dibromohydroxymercuriluorescein, Malachite Green
Diseases: ectoparasites
Comments: Do not use for discus.

Paragon 2
Active ingredients: Metronidazole, Neomycin sulphate, Furazolidone, Naladixic acid & Sodium chloride
Diseases: Bacterial and parasite infections

Active ingredients: Aldehydes, Malachite Green, Polymers

Diseases: fish lice (Argulus), anchor worm (Lernea), gill maggots (Ergasilus)
Parazin is safe with fish, plants and filtration. Before using, read instructions carefully. Switch off UV sterilisers and remove carbon and/or ammonia removers. Replace after 10 days.

Active ingredients: Potassium Penicillin Activity
Diseases: General anti-fungal anti-bacterial, treats fin and tail rot, protruding or cloudy eyes, mouth sores, white cottony patches, bacterial infections (both gram-positive and gram-negative), popeye, gill disease, fungal infections
This class works to weaken the bacterial cell wall so that when the cell divides (reproduces), it does not form properly and bursts as it grows, thereby killing the cell. For this drug to work, the bacteria cells must be actively growing and reproducing.

Active ingredients: Potassium Permanganate
Diseases: chilodonella, tetrahymena, trichodina, gill flukes, anchorworms
See Potassium Permanganate.

Active ingredients: Pimenta racemosa
Diseases: wounds, fungus, other stubborn diseases
Contraindications: This tonic has been known to be quite effective when combined with Melafix. It is safe for use in reef tanks and scaleless fish.

Active ingredients: 250 mg capsule, Pipazene Citrate
Diseases: Use when introducing new fish, contaminated food, Parasites, nematodes (camallanus and capillaria) and parasites in food

Potassium Permanganate
Diseases: chilodonella, tetrahymena, trichodina, gill flukes, anchorworms
A 2 mg/L treatment is usually effective for ponds with relatively clear water. Potassium permanganate reacts with organic matter and becomes neutralized and unavailable to treat the target parasite. The greater the amount of organic matter in a pond, the more potassium permanganate required to achieve the desired chemical concentration. Therefore, a pond with moderate to heavy algal blooms will require a higher treatment rate to neutralize the organic matter in the pond and still achieve the desired concentration of 2 mg/L.

One popular method of treatment is to begin with an application of 2 mg/L potassium permanganate. If the pond remains pink to purple in color for 8--12 hours, then an effective treatment is assumed to have occurred, and no additional chemical is required. However, if within a 12-hour period, the pond turns brown, then an additional 1--2 mg/L treatment is required, depending on how quickly the pond turned brown. It is recommended that treatment begin in the morning so that the pond can be watched for the next 8- to 12-hour period, and any color change can be easily detected.

Diseases: flukes, tapeworms, intestinal flagellates
It is not effective against camallanus worms however it has been used numerous times successfully for fluke infestations and flagellates.

Available as Droncit (veterinary clinics as anthelmintic for cats and dogs), Prazipro (nearby USA petstores and online sites), Medi-Worm (
Goldfish Connection; US location), Goldfish Utopia, PondRx, and Pet Mountain.

Dosage courtesy of
Day 1 -- remove carbon, perform water change with vacuuming, and add Prazi to tank
Day 2 -- add Prazi
Day 3 -- do nothing
Day 4 -- do nothing
Day 5 -- do nothing
Day 6 -- add Prazi
Day 7 -- add Prazi
Day 8 -- normal partial water change with vacuuming
Day 14 - normal partial water change, then add prazi
Day 21 - normal partial water change, then add prazi
Day 28 - normal partial water change, then add prazi
Day 35 - normal partial water change, add carbon, treatment is complete

Recommended dosage: 2.5mg per liter. Considering this is a rather mild treatment, it is not very difficult to overdose.

Diseases: ich, fungus, neon tetra disease, velvet, costia, trichodina
Do not use when rays or momyrids are present.

Quick Cure
Active Ingredients: Malachite green and Formalin
Diseases: Ich
Both active ingredients are carcinogenic agents. See further information of both ingredients under Formalin/Formaldehyde and Malachite Green.

First day dose 1 drop per gallon
Second day perform 30% waterchange or more but add no medication
Third day dose 1 drop per gallon
Fourth day perform a waterchange 30% or more, add no medication
Fifth day add quick cure (1 drop per gallon)
Sixth day perform big waterchange and put fresh carbon in filter.

Be sure your water has plenty of oxygen as Rid-Ich can deplete oxygen levels.

Dosage instructions courtesy of Thegab.org.

Ingredients: 250 mg Quinine Activity
Diseases: Ich, white body blotches, parasites, brooklynella, cryptocaryon

Active Ingredients: Malachite green and Formalin
Diseases: Ich
Both active ingredients are carcinogenic agents. See further information of both ingredients under Formalin/Formaldehyde and Malachite Green.

Dosage is one teaspoon per 10 gallons and must be done daily for at least a week and another three days after ich had seemingly disappeared. Do partial water changes before administering full dosage as required.

Be sure your water has plenty of oxygen as Rid-Ich can deplete oxygen levels.

Dosage information is courtesy of Thegab.org.

Romet B
Ingredients: sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim
Diseases: erythrodermatitis, Edwardsiella ictaluri infections, Aeromonas infections,
Another product approved for use on food fish by FDA.

Available in
Goldfish Utopia in small quantities.

Sera Bakto Tabs
Diseases: Dropsy
Please carry out treatment once any of the dropsy symptoms (protruding scales, bloated abdomen and pop eyes) appear.

Sera Baktopur
Active ingredients: acriflavine, methylene blue, phenylglycol, aqua purificata ad
Diseases: septicemia, dropsy, fungus, columnaris, fin rot, mouth rot
It is best to use it only in the quarantine tank as it can harm the beneficial bacteria. This can be ineffective once the fish has reach the final stages of dropsy (assuming the cause is renal/kidney damage).

Sera Baktopur Direct
Diseases: serious bacterial infections, septicemia, dropsy
This is a very effective medicine and may harm your biological filtration. So when treating, try to treat the fish in a hospital tank.

Sera Costapur
Diseases: Ich, Costia, Chilodonella, Trichodina

Sera Cyprinopur
Active ingredients: dihydroxybenzol, ethanol
Diseases: external parasites, spring virosis
This medicine is sold in bulk as it is designed for ponds, however it can be used in the aquarium to treat diseases and external parasites like camallanus, anchorworms, fish leech and fish lice.

Sera Mycopur
Diseases: fungus (Saprolegnia) and skin and gill flukes

Sera Omnipur
Diseases: Bacterial infections, fin rot, fungal infections (Saprolegnia, Achlya), skin slime (Costia, Chilodonella), Trichodina, Oodinium, gill and skin flukes (Dactylogyrus or Gyrodactylus), skin injuries and wounds.

Sera Oodinopur A
Active ingredients: Copper sulfate
Diseases: freshwater and saltwater Oodinium
See information under Copper Sulfate above (scroll list back to "C").

Sinclair Fin Rot Terminator
Ingredients: Silver Proteinate
Diseases: External Bacterial infections in Freshwater Fish. Contraindications:
Best effects at 16-27C

Sinclair White Spot Terminator (WS3)
Ingredients: Acriflavine, Malachite Green & Quinine sulphate
Diseases: Protozoal Infections in Freshwater fish.
Best used at 25-30C. Toxic to marine life.

Ingredients: 150 mg capsule, Kanamycin Sulfate, Nitrofurazone activity
Diseases: bloated abdomen, red patches, hemorrhages, white body slime, dropsy, bacterial infections, furunculosis, columnaris, fungus

Diseases: gill and body parasites, round worms, thread worms, intestinal worms
Do not use when crustaceans, echinoderms, rays, seawater sharks, pirahna, sturgeon or sterlets and related species are present. In these instances use Waterlife PARAGON.

Effective against bacterial infections.

Super Sulfa
Ingredients: 150 mg capsule, Sulfamethazine, Sulfathiazole, Sulfadiazine, Sulfamerazine, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
Treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. Wide spectrum anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, treats cottony patches, fin and tail rot, white body and fin patches, fungal infections, molly disease, columnaris

Super Velvet Plus
Ingredients: Acriflavine and sodium chloride
Diseases: Velvet Specific, treats Velvet, body shimmy, collapsed fins, white patches on fish, body fungus.

Ingredients: Oxytetracycline
Diseases: erythrodermatitis, enteric red mouth (Yersinia ruckeri), aeromonas and pseudomonas infection among catfish
This has been approved for use on food catfish such as channel catfish by the FDA.

Ingredients: 250 mg capsule of Tetracycline Hydrochloride activity
Diseases: antibiotic, treats ulcers and open soars, frayed fins, mouth and body sores, abdominal bloat, red patches, bacterial infections, livebearer disease, fungal infections, dropsy, furunculosis
Cannot be combined with any meds except for medicated foods. Very effective at low pH or acidic water condition with pH no more than 7.4-7.5 otherwise ineffective when used with salt and high hardness levels.

Tetrafin Gold Med Goldfish Disease Treatment by Tetra
Ingredients: Formaldehyde & Malachite Green oxalate
Diseases: Flukes, External Bacterial, Protozoal & Fungal infections in Coldwater Aquarium fish.

Trichlorfon (Masoten)
Also registers as dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl) phosphonate.

Diseases: monogenean flukes, Gyrodactylus (skin fluke) and Dactylogyrus (gill fluke), as well as leeches and crustacean ectoparasites. Argulus (fish lice) and Lernaea (anchor worm), Trichodina spp. Ergasilus spp
It is not a recommended drug as it has proven itself harmful for human and animal use. It is available under its trade name Bayer Masoten, Metriphonate or Dylox and pet store medicines such as Dylox and Life-bearer (all information mentioned above) and has been banned in many countries.

Tricide Neo
See Neomycin.

Triple Sulfa
Active Ingredients: 332 mg sodium sulfathiazole, 84 mg sodium sulfamethazine, 84 mg sodium suldacetamide per capsule
Treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. W
ide spectrum anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, treats cottony patches, fin and tail rot, white body and fin patches, fungal infections, molly disease, columnaris
A product by API.

Ultra Cure BX
Active ingredients: Nitrofurazone 0.03%, Triple Sulfa (Sulfadiazine, Sulfamethazine, and Sulfamerazine) 0.03%

Ultra Cure PX
Active ingredients: Praziquantel 0.0057%, Flubenol 0.03%, Metronidazole 0.30%
Diseases: internal parasites and flagellates
Retrieved from Thegab.org source.
Instructions: "Hold back all feeding for 1 day before using. Then use Ultra Cure PX as the only product offered to the fish when fed. Add to the aquarium with the dropper tip on the bottle. Hold bottle 2 inches above water surface and squeeze. Offer at least 5 drops per fish twice a day. Repeat every 24 hours for 3 days."

Another product that contains ingredients to combat the three major types of internal parasites (nematodes, cestodes and monogenean trematodes ; for further information, see information below Jungle Anti-Parasite Medicated Food). It is available through mail-order from most major internal companies that sell aquarium products (In Canada available through
mops.ca) More stores will likely carry this product soon. As it is fairly new there are not that many reports as to how well this product works and whether fish will readily eat the gel.

Vitamix Plus
Ingredients: Vitamins, A, B6, B12, C, D, E, Thiamine, Niacin, Riboflavin, Phytosterois, Minerals, Amino Acids and Preservatives
Diseases: prevention of Avitaminosis, loss of colour, listlessness, poor diet, dietary stress, poor growth

Classification of Medications
Copper Sulfate
Furanace, Furoxone, Nitrofurazone
Malachite Green
Oxolinic Acid
Potassium Permanganate
Tea Tree Oil

Bright Green
Copper Sulfate
Formalin (37-40%)
Gentian Violet
Malachite Green
Methylene Blue
Potassium Permanganate
Silver Nitrate

Bright Green
Chloramine B
Chloramine T
Copper Sulfate
Flagyl (Metrondiazole)
Formalin (37-40%)
Furanace, Furoxone, Nitrofurazone
Malachite Green
Methylene Blue
Oxolinic Acid
Potassium Permanganate
Sodium chloride (Salt)
Silver Nitrate

Chloramine B
Chloramine T
Copper Sulfate
Formalin (37-40%)
Hydrogen Peroxide (3%)
Malachite Green
Methylene Blue
Potassium Permanganate
Sodium chloride (Salt)

Adverse Drug Reactions
NEVER mix the following medications:


Erythromycin, Furans, Tetracycline, Sulfas




Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin (exercise caution), Furan, Penicillin, Sulfas, Baking Soda




Cryptocaryon Irritans - (Marine Ich) Usually billed as the marine equivalent of white spot, the parasite usually presents itself initially by causing a loss of appetite, some skin irritation and minor respiratory distress.
Closer investigation will reveal pinhead-sized white to gray nodules. The parasite causes excessive irritation resulting in reactionary growth of the skin surface; these growths are what you see as very small white spots. The parasite is highly infectious and often fatal within three to five days.
The life cycle is complex and will continue in the aquarium until all the fish are either dead or develop a partial immunity. Do not confuse this parasite with the brooklynella parasite which may cause similar skin reactions seen after the first indicators of brooklynella, which are cloudy eyes and excessive skin mucus being produced.

Amyloodinium - Also known as Velvet. This is a rapidly progressing disease which starts off at the gills and so shows initially as respiratory distress but will then spread out across the skin.
Signs include respiratory distress, skin rubbing and erratic swimming. Without treatment death can occur within two days of respiratory signs. This is an concerning identification and life cycle.

Turbellarian or "black ich" is caused by one or more genus of flatworm, with distinct life cycles as you see with the true marine ich. The only obvious signs of this parasite are the dark spots which are a skin reaction of the fish being attacked by the parasite and are not the actual parasite. As you can see in the below photo, this flatworm parasite can also infest other invertebrates such as this yellow sea cucumber.

Brooklynella- Similar in appearance to Uronema, these protozoa seem to be increasing in importance. The infections are initially confined to the gills but eventually will spread causing tissue irritation and skin slough producing ulcers.
Fish become lethargic and secrete excess mucus. Death can occur within twelve hours from toxins released by the protozoa. First indicators can include heavy breathing, cloudy eyes, excessive mucus and Ich like lesions. This parasite must be dealt with very quickly!!

Cryptosporidium nasoris
- is a coccidian protozoan which attach to the lining of the guts of fish. Hoover et al. (1981) described this species from 8-cm long naso-tang, Nasolituratus Bloch & Schneider originating from a pet store in the USA and kept within a marine aquarium.
Histological examination and electron microscopy of intestinal mucosae revealed organisms resembling members of the genus Cryptosporidium. Infected fish show emaciation, loss of appetite, regurgitation and droppings with undigested food in them.
Other coccidia can invade the gall bladder, liver kidneys and even the gonads, effectively neutering the fish. Over sixty species of myxosporideal protozoa have been reported in marine fish. One particular one, Glugea heraldi, forms whitish cysts just under the skin on Atlantic seahorses.

Myxobolus - parasites are another common infestation of wild caught marines. Indeed most tropical marines harbor Ceratomyxa, Myxidium or Leptotheca in their gallbladders. Septemcapsula plotosi and M. Cerebralis have been found to infect the nervous tissue of fish causing the fish to whirl before death. There is no known cure for this problem.

Uronema Marinum
- U. marinum are single-celled, microscopic, ciliated, opportunistic invaders that normally feed on bacteria in the aquatic habitat.
They are constantly in an energy acquisition phase (always looking for food. When the fish’s immune system is stressed, U. marinum will attack the fish, invading muscles and internal organs, eating red blood cells and other cells. Uncontrollable or recurrent infestations are typically indicative of underlying problems such as introduction of new fish, overcrowding, and poor water quality.
Life cycle. This takes place by simple mitotic division, but there seems to be quite a body of evidence that in marine Aquariums at least, that high organic loads appear to favor the reproduction of the ciliate.
The parasite can be confused for brooklynella which if treated is not a problem in misidentification since the usual formalin treatment will destroy both types of parasites.
This parasite is just as deadly and as quick acting as brooklynella and will remain viable for some time even after the fish has died.

Bacterial and Fungal:

Internal Bacterial Infections - Usually shows itself as bloody patches or streaks visible in the fish, this type of infection requires the fish to be removed to a quarantine tank for treatment of both its water and its food to ensure a speedy recovery.
While being treated within the quarantine tank, feed the fish a medication soaked fish food. For an initial treatment plan, I would at first, go with a medication that targets gram-negative bacteria as these are the most commonly experienced problems. Such medications include Maracyn 2 or a sulfa based medication.
If after the prescribed treatment period, it is found to be ineffective, I would then switch to a gram-negative medication such as Erythromycin.

Fin Rot. Evident when the fins show degeneration and start to look ragged in appearance. The most common cause of fin rot is physical abuse, followed closely by poor water quality.
The bacterium responsible for further fin loss is a gram negative bacterium and can be treated in a quarantine tank with an appropriate anti-bacterial medication.

Pop Eye /Cloudy Eye. A very obvious swelling and / or cloudiness of the eyes, this is most often caused by poor water quality or physical damage or abrasion to the eye of which secondary bacterial infections can take advantage of.
This is another gram negative bacteria responsible for this condition and can be treated in a quarantine tank with an appropriate anti-bacterial medication.

Vibriosis. A rapidly progressing septicemia infection characterized by skin hemorrhages, lethargy, anorexia and the eventual formation of deep skin and muscle ulceration.
Definitive diagnosis and treatment is based upon culture and sensitivity tests. A commercial vaccine, produced for salmonids, is available and would be worth considering if Vibrio became a recurring problem.

Pasteurellosis. This presents as a hemorrhagic septicemia similar to Vibriosis. Should the fish survive this then grayish-white granulomatous lesions form in the spleen, liver and kidneys - a condition known as pseudo tuberculosis. Treatment is with appropriate antibiotics.

Fish Tuberculosis. Very common in marine fish. Granulomatous lesions due to the mycobacteria can affect any organ and so the fish may present with emaciation, ulceration, anorexia, loss of color, respiratory distress or exophthalmia.
Laboratory diagnosis is essential especially because of the potential risk to the aquarist. Other bacteria may occasionally be isolated including Edwardsiella, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Flexibacter or even Eubacterium tarantellus - this latter bacterium affects the central nervous system causing altered pigmentation and swimming patterns.

External (Gas?) Bubble Disease - I believe these formations can be caused by two distinct, separate aquarium conditions. In the below photos, the bubble formations appear to be fluid filled, in this case, a bacterial infection would be suspect.
Just as with "pop eye", an aquarium with high organic levels, or the use of crushed coral as a substrate provides the conditions for bacterial growth, in such high numbers, the bacteria can quickly overwhelm the fishes immune system or invade the fishes protective mucus coating.
This condition should see the fish removed to a quarantine tank for treatment with an antibiotic while the aquarium receives a filtration or substrate make over. Increased water changes will help in the short term, but one must look at the entire system and the amounts of food being fed to the system.

If the bubble formations appear to be shiny, then most likely there is an actual gas involved. This can occur when the
total dissolved gases within the water reach a super saturation level. Heavily aerating the water can lead to conditions where the water holds a great deal of dissolved gases which then comes out of solution within the fish and forms actual gas bubbles, some of which will appear externally on the fish as well as the fish having internal formations as well.
Higher temperatures or a sudden increase in temperature can bring gases out of solution. To cure this problem, you may want to reduce or slow down the amount of aeration the tank is receiving and ensure the water temperature maintains within normal parameters.

MYCOBACTERIOSIS - Emaciated appearance along the narrow, dorsal edge. A sunken belly becomes noticeable, although bloating (ascites) may also occur, due to fluid accumulation in the body cavity.
Unilateral or bilateral exophthalmia (Popeye) are common symptoms, as well as lifted scales, pale coloration, and in advanced, chronic cases, spinal curvature. All this soon leads to a loss of appetite, jerky swimming, greatly reduced reactions and reflexes.
Ultimately, the affected fish becomes lethargic, seeking the corners of the aquarium, appearing to want to remain apart from its tank-mates until it dies. Quoted from Mr. Lance Ichinotsubo.
As is the case with any of the bacteria, they are opportunistic and will take advantage of what other diseases have done to the fish causing secondary infections. The below photos show this bacterial strain having done so as confirmed by laboratory identification as being a Mycobacterium.

Mycobacterium marinum - This bacterial strain is a very real and present danger to ourselves and has the greatest potential for human contraction with a disease associated with their aquarium.

SAPROLEGNIA - (FUNGUS) - Fungal disease in tropical fishes is associated with adverse environmental conditions. Infection, whether occurring in isolated individuals or in epidemic proportions, is preceded by some environmental stress that disrupts the normal host defenses.
Most of these infections are attributed to members of the genus
Saprolegnia. These organisms, considered to be saprophytic "water molds," are a normal, ubiquitous component of aquatic ecosystems. Saprophytes live off of decaying organic material and are essential for recycling nutrients back into the environment. Fungal infections can be unseen killers if the gills are infected, which may happen if another pathogen such as a parasite has damaged the gills allowing the fungus to gain access.


Viruses appear to be very common in fish although not all are associated with disease. Treatment is rarely practical aside from provision of optimum conditions to allow the fishes' own immune system to deal with the infection.

Lymphocyctis virus. This virus induces massive cells to form which appear grossly as grayish-white masses on the fins and gills. Such abnormal cells may also be found in the muscle and body cavity.
May be confused with chlamydia infections (epitheliocystis), parasitic cysts or sarcomas. Infections are usually self-limiting and may spontaneously clear of their own accord.

Tang Fingerprint Disease. Oval fingerprint-like areas of discoloration occur on the sides of tangs and surgeon fish. Fish feed well at first but deaths can occur. Given ideal conditions the disease appears to be self-limiting.
Initially thought to be a result of traumatic damage, microscopic investigations failed to confirm this; it is believed to be viral although no viral particles have yet to be identified.

Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus. Usually considered a disease of salmonids IPN virus (or to be precise, a virus indistinguishable from IPN) has caused disease in over twenty different species of tropical marine fish.
In an outbreak the fish lost appetite, became lethargic and eventually disorientated. Some became ascetic and hemorrhages at the base of the fins were common. Unlike in salmon there was none of the classic necrosis of the pancreas.

Angelfish Encephalitis. Seen in French and gray angelfish, affected fish become lethargic, lose their appetite and secrete excess mucus. Eventually they lose their balance and die. There is no known treatment or control measures.

HLLE or "head,lateral line erosion" Head and lateral line erosions seen in marine fish. Associated with an aquariovirus. Usually starts out as visible pitting (holes) around the eyes and along the lateral line. Better water quality and diet usually allow the fish to fully recover.


Turbellarian flatworms have caused skin damage and eventual deaths in yellow tangs. Other species affected included surgeon fish, angelfish, butterfly fish, parrot fish and wrasse. Outbreaks are associated with poor husbandry and high levels of organic matter in the aquarium.

Monogenean Parasites are better known as flukes or flatworms, which live as parasites on fish usually infesting the gill areas first. Being monogenean means that they have one direct life cycle and do not need an intermediate host to multiply. These parasites are usually transmitted by direct contact between fish.
Long term treatment methods such as formalin baths will be needed since the eggs of these parasites can survive initial one time treatments. Most are commonly located on the skin and in gill chambers and more rarely in the mouth and body cavities. They use hook attachments to grip the epidermis whilst feeding on the skin and gill tissue; this causes only superficial damage.
More importantly they can cause epidermal ulceration after heavy feeding thus in numerous quantities can in fact cause heavy damage. They are also thought to transmit other pathogens. Treatment should include antibacterial medications to prevent secondary infections as shown in the fish below.

MONOGENETIC TREMATODES (Monogenetic = direct life cycle) of the genera
Gyrodactylus and Benedinia occasionally cause problems. Often near the eyes or gills, affected fish show signs of heavy respiration and scratch against objects in the aquarium.
Some fish may hover in the water with their fins clamped tight against their body. The eyes may be inflamed - the trematode Neobenedenia can cause corneal ulceration with eventual functional loss of the eye.
Diseases caused by tapeworms and nematodes are relatively rare in aquaria, because in the majority of cases an intermediate host(s) is required in the worm's life cycle - a stage from which the fish will be isolated in the aquarium. Encysted stages or living worms may be found in fish. Some species may have an ability to switch to a direct life cycle - for instance Spirocamallanus which has been found in 16 species of tropical marine fish in Hawaiian waters, can prove to be a problem in aquarium fishes.

Internal Roundworms:

NEMATODES or internal roundworms, while somewhat rare in captive bred fish since most worms need an intermediate host for the life cycle, the same cannot be said of wild caught specimens, which in our hobby makes up the bulk of our available species. For treatment use a medicated food that has been soaked in Praziquantel, levamisole or metrodinazole. The first two medications will deworm and the last one will work against intestinal protozoans.

Besides a "bloated" belly, having the fish discharge a "stringy" appearing excrement is usually the only first indicator that we will have of an internal roundworm problem, although such a "stringy" appearance may also only be an indication that the fish needs a meatier diet.

The lack of any truly visible signs of such an infestation is a very good reason to assume that all newly purchased / caught fish are infested with worms and should be medicated as such while they are in their mandatory six week quarantine period.

The severity of nematode infestation in fish will vary depending upon the life stage, species, and number of nematodes present; the age and species of infected fish; and the sites of infection.
Even though adult nematodes are typically found in fish intestinal tracts, adult and other life stages can be found in almost any organ, but they are most commonly present in muscle, the liver, and tissues surrounding the internal organs.
Visible signs of infection may include hemorrhaging, cysts or granuloma formation (a granuloma is a reaction by immune cells in which the cells try to “wall off” some foreign body, in this case, the worm. Granulomas formed around worms can look like little brown “rock-like” areas in the shape of the worm, but will be surrounded by a distinct clear area at their very edge), external lumps or nodules, inflammation, and necrosis (presence of dead and dying tissue.
Adult nematodes in the intestinal tract damage its lining and rob the fish of nutrients, causing a "wasting" effect. These are the only types of roundworms that we can treat for; any worms outside of the intestinal tract are for all purposes, untreatable.
Feeding our fish live foods or fresh seafood can transfer worms to our fish, as such, I freeze all fresh foods to ensure any and all worms are killed, I would also avoid feeding live food such as other fish to our larger predatory fish.

External Isopods/Copepods:

Quote Leslie Harris "An internal copepod parasite called Serpentisaccus magnificae which lives on the orange fire fish Nemateleotris magnificae. What you have appears to be the same or a similar parasite. The genus name of the parasite - Serpentisaccus - describes the 2 long curly egg sacs. The rest of the body is deeply embedded in the fish's body. Even if you pull off the egg strings, unless the parasite is so damaged that it dies it will just grow new egg sacs. This type of parasite usually doesn't kill the fish and if the fish is healthy it should be able to tolerate the parasite. The life cycle of this parasite isn't known. Similar copepods go through up to 11 developmental stages starting with planktonic forms before they become the final adult form. Some species require an intermediate host like a snail but others don't; once they stop being planktonic they find a host fish to live on. Without knowing the life cycle it's impossible to predict if the eggs can survive long enough to become additional parasites. Hopefully they will be eaten or removed through your tank's filtration. these parasites tend to be very specific about which fish they live on so it's unlikely that they would attach to any other fish in your tank." Unquote.

This group includes some "old favorites" such as the fish louse
Argulus sp. which may occasionally turn up. Parasitic copepods may be seen, often near the eyes or gills. The isopod parasite Icthyotaces pteroisicola has been reported to cause marked skin swellings on the lion fish Pterois lunulata, each swelling acting as a protective sac for one parasite. For large obvious Isopods attached to the fish as shown above, manual removal would be best, which can be done with a pair of tweezers or by placing the fish in a dip solution.


Temperature. - This should be as close to the fishes' natural environment as possible. Fish (and invertebrates) are ectotherms reliant upon heat from their surroundings to support their metabolic processes. At low temperatures their immune systems are compromised, as are other processes such as their metabolism, digestion and drug absorption. Excessive high temperatures will reduce the oxygen holding capacity of the water and stress the fish.
When using treatments, it has been shown that lower temperatures (76-78) increases the effectiveness of anti-bacterial medications as well as slowing down the growth rate of bacteria as well as possibly slowing down the reproductive rate of some parasites. These lower temperatures should not be maintained any longer than necessary for treatment.

Salinity - The water surrounding a marine fish is more concentrated than the body fluids of the fish and so osmosis constantly draws water from the fish. This is why Hypo salinity during quarantine (only do so for fish only) reduces stress on fish since their bodies do not have to work as hard against osmotic pressures.
To prevent dehydration, saltwater fish must drink, with the salt that they imbibe being excreted via the mucus secreting glands of the skin, in the feces, but primarily from the kidneys and the gills. Sudden rising of the salinity will dramatically upset this delicate balance stressing or even killing the animal. Please DO NOT lower your aquarium's salinity level below normal in the mistaken belief that in doing so is good for the fish over the long term, it is harmful to the fish, causing kidney failure.

Oxygen level - The amount of dissolved oxygen is determined by the atmospheric pressure, the temperature and the salinity. Extreme temperature or salinity will reduce oxygen levels, often to dangerous levels.

pH - Saltwater has a pH of around 8.0 to 8.3, and has a significant intrinsic buffering capacity. However CO2 and other metabolic byproducts from the aquarium inhabitants will tend to reduce the pH.
This will to some extent be resisted by the normal buffering mechanisms but these can be exhausted allowing a rapid fall in pH. In tanks with a heavy algal growth, during the period of illumination the opposite may occur where all the available CO2 is utilized; bicarbonates are then used for photosynthesis resulting in the precipitation of carbonates and a rise in pH. This is why it is important to take your pH test at the same time of day/night each time you take a test. Running your sump's refuge area's light on an opposite cycle of the main tank can reduce this pH swing between daytime and night time.

Environmental Toxins - These include ammonia, nitrite, heavy metals, chlorine and chloramine. Ammonia is particularly important because at the high pH of marine aquaria it is mostly in the more toxic form of NH3.
Should one be correcting after a fall in pH, bear this in mind because as you raise the pH a significant amount of ammonia present will convert to the toxic NH3. Of the heavy metals, copper is probably the most important because it is toxic to invertebrates at low concentrations and to fish at higher concentrations, yet it is an important constituent of many off the shelf medications. Copper can bind to rock work in the aquarium, only to be slowly released at a later date, a fact which can result in invertebrate die-offs sometime after copper containing medications were last used. Fortunately copper test kits are readily available.

Another area of concern is within the outer environment of the fish, namely the room / air that the aquarium is in. I have heard of many cases of having entire livestock’s killed by the inadvertent use of any number of chemicals, solvents, smoke, aerosols and paint fumes either within the room, the house and even something as simple as the neighbor spraying his yard with pesticides, as well as having cleaning chemicals dropped into the aquarium while cleaning.
The top of an aquarium should never be used as a shelf to put your cleaning solvents, soaps, foods or additives on while you go about your chores. An accident waiting to happen is putting it mildly. You should take your aquarium into consideration when using such items.

Clownfish HyperMelanization
- This seems to be a common occurrence with clownfish that host corals. I assume that since clown fish's skin is adapted to dealing with the stinging power of anemones, the darkening of the skin is a response in trying to deal with the foreign mucous and stings of corals. I have never seen this condition become a problem for the fish and they seem to do just fine.

Acclimation Stress - Often confused with an internal bacterial disease which appears very similar, the improper acclimation of marine fish can cause capillary congestion leading to the rupture of the capillaries through sudden exposure to higher salinity levels. This is most often seen with newly purchased fish that have not been acclimated very slowly, as in days long periods to higher salinity or when replacement water is above the aquarium's salinity when performing a large water change. As long as the fish is eating properly and it develops no other problems, it should heal in due time and recover. If the fish develops such red markings in the absence of salinity changes then I would suspect a bacterial infection due to poor water quality and the fish should be removed and treated by feeding it an anti-bacterial laced food while taking steps to get the organic levels of the aquarium under control.